Water

Drinking Water Purification Methods

Potable water

is the other name used for drinking water and is usually supplied for human consumption. This water should go through certain scientific standards in order to consume without any risk of long-term or immediate ill effects. It should also meet all the local and state standards as they contain pathogens and solid materials which can cause harm. According to a study, America is considered to have the purest water supply across the world. The following are a few drinking water purification methods.

Necessity to Purify Water

About 71% of the Earth is covered with large water bodies and this is usually maintained with the help of water cycle. About 1 billion people across the globe may not have the access to drinking safe water. The source of water is usually divided into two types and they are – ground water and surface water.

Rainwater is the main source for both ground and surface water and it contains dissolved gases and other suspended particles. Rivers, reservoirs, lakes, organic matter, microorganisms, minerals and dust particles dissolved in them.

Facts of Drinking Water

The below mentioned statistics are given by the

World Health Organization (WHO)

of drinking water.

  • About 54% of the population in the world use piped connection for improvised drinking water and this is available inside the yard or plot.
  • About 33% of the population use protected dug wells, public taps or sand pipes, boreholes or tube wells, rainwater and protected springs.
  • About 13% of the population uses water from unimproved sources like unprotected surface water like dam, lake, stream, canal, irrigation channels, dug well, and spring.

Various Purification Methods

Drinking water purification methods involve a process of removing the undesirable chemical and biological contaminants from the raw water. There are several methods that help in purifying water and the below mentioned are a few of them.

  • Bottled Water

    : This water is safe, treated well and packaged for direct consumption. Bottled water is more convenient than the raw water which requires purification. Cost is the main drawback as everyone cannot afford to buy bottled water.

  • Boiling

    : This is considered as the easiest and cheapest way to purify water as it disinfects the water from microorganisms like

    E.coli

    ,

    Giardia lamblia

    and

    Cryptosporidium

    which cause diseases. According to a study by Wilderness Medical Society, water boiled at a temperature of 70° C kills all the pathogens in just 30 minutes. Water boiled at 100° C kills microbes and enteropathogens.

  • Filtration

    : This is used as one of the water purification process and the procedure involves physical removal of contaminants with the help of a filter. This process may not add any kind of unpleasant taste and may provide a direct access to drinking.

  • Chemical Treatments

    : This is considered as the important step used for water purification and it is done with the help of using chemical halogens. Iodine and chlorine are the most commonly used chemicals for water purification. The effectiveness of this procedure mainly depends on the contact time, chemical concentration, water temperature and turbidity. Chlorine is usually used in the form of bleach and it acts as a good disinfectant. However, iodine is more reliable than that of chlorine and is available in the form of crystals.

  • Ultraviolet Purification

    : This is considered as one of the fast and effective ways of treating water. This procedure destroys the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) of microbes and prevents them from reproducing. Ultraviolet radiation helps in eradicating microorganisms and restores the flavor and taste of the water.

  • Water Contamination Prevention

    : It is very important to prevent the water from getting contaminated. Water contamination is generally caused due to municipal waste which is also known as

    sewage runoffs

    . Avoid dumping of the wastes in and around rivers and lakes as this widely helps in treating this condition. One can protect the environment by taking good, proper care of it and by conserving water as well.

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