Types of Water Pollution

Water the major and most important component on our planet and we all depend on it. There are a lot of sources that add to water pollution. It is the gradual effect of pollution that is causing a threat to aquatic plants, animals and human beings. A few types of water pollution are:

Surface water pollution:

Surface water includes rivers, lakes and oceans. Water can get polluted in a number of ways. Sometimes due to heavy rains there is soil erosion, rain water sweeps away the silt and soil from the surface and this spreads over ponds, lakes and rivers which forms a layer or a crust. This may get dissolved with other water bodies and becomes harmful for aquatic plants and animals.

Microbiological water pollution:

This is a natural form of water pollution caused by micro-organism. Micro-organisms include bacteria, Viruses and protozoa. They pollute the water due to which organisms like fish, plants, animals and humans fall ill. Since lots of people are not aware of treating such water they fall sick and are effected with diseases like cholera from micro-organisms that live in the water.

Suspended matter:

Suspended matters are those that are caused by molecules that cannot dissolved in the water. This material is called particulate matter that causes water pollution.
These undissolved particles settle in the water bed and cause a thick layer of silt which becomes harmful to marine organisms which live below.
Biodegradable substances are those that are released in water and become harmful by increasing the number of anaerobic micro-organisms.
Toxic chemical are those substance that are released in water, due to which aquatic plants and animals die.

Chemical pollution:

Industries and agriculture work releases a lot of harmful chemicals that get dissolved in the water and pollute it. These industries leave poisonous gases and harmful metals that pollute the water and causes death. Farmers use a lot of pesticides for crops which eventually gets dissolved in the water and as a result the land also becomes infertile.It effects human beings and animals like birds when they eat poisonous fish.
Oil spills are another major reason that causes death in marine organisms. The oil forms a poisonous layer on the surface of sea water and contaminates due to which fish and other birds do not get fresh oxygen and die.


Nutrients are important for the plant growth. If there is a large concentration of nutrients in waste water and fertilisers they encourage weed and algae growth and this results in clogging of filters and contaminating drinking water. Algae is harmful for aquatic animals as they use all the oxygen and do not leave for other aquatic life.

Ground water pollution:

Aquifer is the water that is found under rocks and soil. In order to get drinking water people built wells. When the ground water gets polluted by pesticides it contaminates the water causing water diseases like cholera.
Therefore keeping all the above causes water should be boiled and filtered to prevent any types of diseases.

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